US President-elect Trump has repeatedly claimed in various occasions to revive the US manufacturing industry. December 21, 2016 announced the formation of the White House National Trade Commission, in accordance with the Trump transition team, the move "shows the president elected to revive the US manufacturing industry, so that every American has the opportunity to decent work and decent wages "So, what is the real situation of American manufacturing? China's manufacturing industry and how to face?
At present, the real situation of the US manufacturing industry is: the financial crisis after the slow recovery in the manufacturing sector, the manufacturing sector has the highest multiplier effect, the manufacturing sector productivity has been increasing, the manufacturing sector R & D investment continued to grow, the total number of workers in the manufacturing sector Increasingly, the manufacturing sector's foreign direct investment (FDI) has doubled in ten years.
The main problem of China 's manufacturing industry
Innovative R & D capability is weak. First of all, Thomson Reuters released in 2015, "the world's top 100 innovation institutions" list without a Chinese enterprises. Second, the top 500 manufacturing enterprises in China in 2012, the average proportion of R & D expenses accounted for only 8.7%. In 2013, China's manufacturing R & D expenditure accounted for only 0.85% of the total revenue. Again, China's manufacturing R & D investment intensity of 1.1, while the United States 4.0, Japan 3.4, Germany 2.3. Finally, China's high-tech industry R & D expenditure accounted for 26.3% of manufacturing R & D funding, lower than the United States 73.3%, 41.2% in Japan, Germany 34.3%.
Input and output efficiency is low. China's manufacturing labor productivity in 2012 was $ 152,000, compared with $ 370,000 for the US, $ 305,000 for Japan and $ 304,000 for Germany.
Product quality is not high. First of all, the 2013 national manufacturing quality competitiveness index shows that the national scale above the manufacturing industry quality competitiveness index of 83.14, in recent years, growth has been declining. Second, the quality of China's manufacturing industry in 2013 was 85.55, down 0.77 from 2012, while the level of quality management, quality supervision and testing decreased by 2.62 and 1.52 respectively. Again, China's leading international quality standards accounted for less than 0.5%, and the standard update speed is slow. Finally, China's enterprises are also prevalent in the management system is not high quality and quality management methods are not ideal and other issues.
The number of world brands is small. On the one hand, from the World Brand Labs (WorldBrandLab) compiled by the 2015 "World Brand 500" list, the United States has 228, there are 44 in the United Kingdom, 42 in France, 37 in Japan, 31 in China Brand selected, but count the energy enterprise brand, and manufacturing-related only Lenovo, Haier, Huawei, Changhong and several other, the number was significantly less. On the other hand, from the most influential brand consulting firm Interbrand annual "best global brand" list, China until 2014 only Huawei 1 company selected for the first time the world's top 100.
From four aspects to improve the level of China's manufacturing industry
To innovation as a driving force for development. To implement the "National Innovation-Driven Development Strategy Outline", "Made in China 2025" and other documents, innovation will lead the development of the first driving force to accelerate the integration of industrialization and information technology, the digital, network, intelligent, green As a technical base to enhance the competitiveness of the industry. Continue to implement the industrial transformation and upgrading of strong engineering and industrial product quality improvement action plan, preferably a number of parts manufacturing enterprises, key parts of independent research and development, testing and manufacturing, product stability, reliability, applicability and other indicators of international advanced Level.
Improve the quality of manufacturing. First, improve the quality of enterprise tracking and monitoring capabilities to achieve, including demand collection, concept determination, product design, product market and product market life cycle, including product life cycle management. Second, to carry out quality management training and counseling, including personnel, equipment, materials, methods, environment and information, including the production elements of effective planning, organization, coordination, control and testing. Finally, the organization leading demonstration enterprise selection activities, guide and encourage enterprises to improve quality.
Create a manufacturing regulatory ecosystem. First of all, the establishment and improvement of quality standards, quality certification system, quality inspection and inspection system, safety early warning and rapid response system, through the product design development, production, testing, sales, delivery of the whole process of quality and safety management system. Second, to promote the quality of the integrity of the system, the establishment of quality dishonesty blacklist and to the public, to increase the quality of illegal and counterfeit brand behavior of the crackdown and punishment. Finally, support third-party institutions to participate in quality control, the implementation of product quality inspection results and brand evaluation mutual recognition and mutual protection.
Build Made in China World Brand. First of all, improve the brand evaluation of relevant national standards, develop operational norms; participate in brand evaluation related to international standards, promote the establishment of a unified global brand evaluation system. Second, to support the establishment of brand building third party institutions, to provide design, marketing, consulting and other aspects of professional services. Again, in accordance with the product from the industry to the development of ideas, the establishment of advantages of brand selection mechanism. Finally, to support all kinds of domestic and foreign media to promote the manufacture of Chinese brands, regularly held in major markets at home and abroad China-made brand exhibition and promotion.